The University Professor award is the highest honor that a faculty member can receive at Bethel University. This highly selective award recognizes a faculty member for sustained excellence in scholarship, teaching, research, or creative activity in his or her discipline. Faculty who are selected as a University Professor have provided outstanding service to Bethel University, to their profession, and to the public.

Their works of scholarship and creativity are listed below.

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Articles

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Public Health Interventions: School Nurse Practice Stories, Linda J.W. Anderson, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Cynthia Hiltz, Stacie A. O’Leary, Ruth Ellen Luehr, and Erika L. Yoney
This study describes and analyzes school nurses’ (SN) experiences with understanding and using public health interventions from the Public Health Intervention Wheel. The Wheel offers a model for naming interventions provided by SNs from a p...

Adolescents' feelings about openness in adoption: Implications for adoption agencies, Jerica M. Berge, Tai J. Mendenhall, Gretchen M. Wrobel, Harold D. Grotevant, and Ruth G. McRoy
Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understandi...

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Critical care nurses' perceptions of obstacles, supports, and knowledge needed in providing quality end-of-life care, Saundra K. Crump, Marjorie A. Schaffer, and Evie Schulte
In response to critical care nurses' perceptions of increasing stress and conflict in difficult end-of-life (EOL) situations, the researchers conducted a study to identify perceived obstacles, supports, and knowledge needed to provide quali...

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A Practical Communication Strategy to Improve Implementation of Evidence-based Practice, Lee A. Diedrick, Marjorie A. Schaffer, and Kristin E. Sandau
OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study was to determine if a consistent communication strategy for implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP), developed with input from staff nurses, improved staff nurse satisfaction with communication ...

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The development, implementation, and evaluation of an end-of-life simulation experience for baccalaureate nursing students, Katherine Fabro, Marjorie Schaffer, and Julie Scharton
AIM This article presents an example of a high-fidelity end-of-life simulation developed for an elective course in a baccalaureate nursing program. BACKGROUND Nursing education programs often lack opportunities for palliative care experienc...

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Adoptees' Contact With Birth Relatives in Emerging Adulthood, Rachel H. Farr, Holly A. Grant-Marsney, Danila S. Musante, Harold D. Grotevant, and Gretchen Miller Wrobel
While openness in adoption has become more common in the United States, little research has examined contact between birth and adoptive families as adoptees become adults. Using quantitative and qualitative data from 167 emerging adult adop...

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A comparison of the well child clinic services in Norway and the nurse family partnership programme in the United States, Kari Glavin and Marjorie A. Schaffer
Aim and objectives: To present a comparison and a discussion of the Well Child Clinic model in Norway and the Nurse-Family Partnership® model in the United States. Background: The Nurse Family Partnership programme in the United States is v...

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A Comparison of the Cornerstones of Public Health Nursing in Norway and in the United States, Kari Glavin, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Liv Halvorsrud, and Lisbeth Gravdal Kvarme
Objectives: This study describes a comparison of the values and beliefs foundational to community nursing practice in Norway with the Cornerstones of Public Health Nursing based on public health nursing practice in the United States. Design...

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The Public Health Intervention Wheel in Norway, Kari Glavin, Marjorie A. Schaffer, and Lisbeth G. Kvarme
Objective: This study explored experiences Norwegian public health nurses (PHNs) have with using interventions from the Public Health Intervention Wheel (PHIW). Design and Sample: The researchers used both quantitative and qualitative measu...

Contact between adoptive and birth families: Perspectives from the Minnesota/Texas adoption research project, Harold D. Grotevant, Ruth G. Mcroy, Gretchen M. Wrobel, and Susan Ayers-Lopez
A growing number of adoptive families have contact with their children's birth relatives. The Minnesota/Texas Adoption Research Project is examining longitudinally the consequences of variations in contact arrangements for birth mothers, ad...

Trajectories of birth family contact in domestic adoptions, Harold D. Grotevant, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Lisa Fiorenzo, Albert Y.H. Lo, and Ruth G. McRoy
Emotional distance regulation theory (Broderick, 1993; Grotevant, 2009) guided this examination of the changes in family structure and process in adoptive kinship networks experiencing different arrangements of contact between birth and ado...

The emergence of psychosocial engagement in adopted adolescents: The family as context over time, Harold D. Grotevant, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Manfred H. Van Dulmen, and Ruth G. McRoy
Psychosocial engagement of adopted adolescents was examined as a function of longitudinal patterns of stability and change in parents'perceptions of the compatibility of the child within the family. Psychosocial engagement involves the adol...

Many faces of openness in adoption: Perspectives of adopted adolescents and their parents, Harold D. Grotevant, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Lynn Von Korff, Brooke Skinner, Jane Newell, Sarah Friese, and Ruth McRoy
Parents and adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years) from 177 adoptive families participating in the second wave of the Minnesota/Texas Adoption Research Project were interviewed about their post-adoption contact arrangements. The sample included...

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Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter to the Philippians, Michael Holmes
The Letter to the Philippians penned by Polycarp of Smyrna is sometimes dismissed as an example of a proof-texting moralism, indicative of the post-apostolic church's fall from the heights of Pauline Christianity. Read on its own terms, thi...

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A Note on the Text of Polycarp Philipplans 11.3, Michael W. Holmes

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Recovering a “Lost” author: Marcion of Smyrna, Michael W. Holmes
The Martyrdom of Polycarp, traditionally treated as an anonymous document, is not: it was composed by Marcion of Smyrna. A writer of no small ability, he argues for a particular view of martyrdom on the basis of a sophisticated interpretati...

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The Text of Matthew 5.11, Michael W. Holmes

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Cornerstones of public health nursing, Linda Olson Keller, Susan Strohschein, and Marjorie A. Schaffer
The "Cornerstones of Public Health Nursing" describe the values and beliefs that underlie the practice of Public Health Nursing, which is a synthesis of public health and nursing. The impetus for the development of the Cornerstone framework...

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Finding common ground in public health nursing education and practice, Linda O. Keller, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Patricia M. Schoon, Bonnie Brueshoff, and Rose Jost
Preparation of the public health nursing (PHN) workforce requires public health nurses from academia and practice to collaborate. However, a shortage of PHN clinical sites may lead to competition between schools of nursing for student place...

Adolescents' satisfaction with contact in adoption, Tai J. Mendenhall, Jerica M. Berge, Gretchen M. Wrobel, Harold D. Grotevant, and Ruth G. McRoy
The current investigation drew from the second wave of data collected from the Minnesota-Texas Adoption Research Project (MTARP). Adolescents involved in adoptive arrangements in which there is contact with birth parents were compared to ad...

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A university and health care organization partnership to prepare nurses for evidence-based practice, Bernita Missal, Beth Kaiser Schafer, Margo A. Halm, and Marjorie A. Schaffer
This article describes a partnership model between a university and health care organizations for teaching graduate nursing research from a framework of evidence-based practice. Nurses from health care organizations identified topics for gr...

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Aesthetic/Design Guidelines for Campus Master Planning Bethel University, Wayne Roosa and Eugene Johnson
The situation that inspired and drove these aesthetic guidelines for campus master planning were unique to the history Bethel University and Seminary. By the early 1960s, Bethel was outgrowing its site on Snelling Avenue in St. Paul. The op...

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To Lecture or Not to Lecture: Engaged Teaching and Learning, Wayne Roosa and Jay Rasmussen
This video and companion paper discusses the lecture as a teaching tool and features Professor Wayne Roosa (Art History) as he reflects on reasons for using lectures, the thoughts and processes involved in lecture design, and techniques tha...

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Family perspectives of healthcare for relatives living with a mental illness, Marjorie A. Schaffer
Purpose: This study explored how parents, partners or spouses, siblings, and adult children, who had a relative living with a mental illness, experienced interactions with mental healthcare providers and staff. Design and Methods: A descrip...

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Speaking Up: How Family Members Advocate for Relatives Living with a Mental Illness, Marjorie A. Schaffer
Consumers with a mental health condition often feel powerless and overwhelmed in interactions with mental healthcare providers. Consumer self-advocacy and advocacy actions undertaken by their family members on the behalf of their relative c...

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Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Linda J.W. Anderson, and Shannon Rising
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing i...

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The Henry Street Consortium Population-Based Competencies for Educating Public Health Nursing Students, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Sharon Cross, Linda O. Keller, Pamela Nelson, Patricia M. Schoon, and Pat Henton
The Henry Street Consortium, a collaboration of nurse educators from universities and colleges and public health nurses (PHNs) from government, school, and community agencies, developed 11 population-based competencies for educating nursing...

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Evaluation of a Public Health Nurse Visiting Program for Pregnant and Parenting Teens, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Amy Goodhue, Kaye Stennes, and Cheryl Lanigan
A visiting nurse agency created the Pregnant and Parenting Team Program, an innovative program for serving pregnant and parenting teen mothers to promote family and child health and family self-sufficiency. Public health nurses (PHNs) provi...

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End-of-life discussion in assisted living facilities, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Kerry Keenan, Faith Zwirchitz, and Laura Tierschel
Discussion about end-of-life healthcare choices can contribute to honoring preferences and facilitating a peaceful dying process for residents in assisted living facilities. Focus groups were used to explore perspectives on end-of-life disc...

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Public Health Nursing Activities: Visible or Invisible?, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Linda Olson Keller, and Dawn Reckinger
Objective: To promote visibility of public health nurses (PHNs), this study identified public health nursing activities and explored PHN perceptions of the impact of their activities on the health of the communities they serve. Design and S...

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Public health nurse mentorship of pregnant and parenting adolescents, Marjorie A. Schaffer and Ngozi Mbibi
Objective: This study explored the experience of the mentoring relationship for public health nurses (PHNs) and teen parents. Design and Sample: PHNs and teen parents who participated in the Parenting and Teen Program provided qualitative d...

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Evidence-based practice models for organizational change: Overview and practical applications, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Kristin E. Sandau, and Lee Diedrick
Aim: To provide an overview, summary of key features and evaluation of usefulness of six evidence-based practice models frequently discussed in the literature. Background: The variety of evidence-based practice models and frameworks, comple...

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Demystifying Nursing Theory: A Christian Nursing Perspective, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Kristin Sandau, and Bernita Missal
How does nursing theory apply to nursing practice? Nursing theory can explain the why and how of nursing practice, guide nursing interventions, and provide a framework for measuring outcomes. This article briefly explains nursing theory, pr...

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Creating and sustaining an academic-practice Partnership Engagement Model, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Patricia M. Schoon, and Bonnie L. Brueshoff
Public health clinical educators and practicing public health nurses (PHNs) are experiencing challenges in creating meaningful clinical learning experiences for nursing students due to an increase in nursing programs and greater workload re...

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Twenty years with the public health intervention wheel: Evidence for practice, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Susan Strohschein, and Kari Glavin
The Public Health Intervention Wheel (PHI Wheel) is a population-based practice model for public health nursing practice that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. T...

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Second Life® Virtual Learning in Public Health Nursing, Marjorie A. Schaffer, Jone M. Tiffany, Kelly Kantack, and Linda J.W. Anderson
Background: With limited available public health nursing clinical placements, nurse educators are challenged to create alternative learning experiences that engage students. Method: Nursing faculty developed three Second Life® virtual learn...

The role of adoption communicative openness in information seeking among adoptees from adolescence to emerging adulthood, Brooke A. Skinner-Drawz, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Harold D. Grotevant, and Lynn von Korff
Adoption Communicative Openness was examined as a predictor of information seeking from adolescence to emerging adulthood in a group of adoptees who did not have direct contact with birth relatives during adolescence. Changes in information...

Moving Forward, Gretchen Miller Wrobel

Understanding the Adoptive Family within the Context of Christian Hospitality, Gretchen Miller Wrobel
Adoptive families can take many forms, yet there are similarities across adoptive family types that can be studied. Relevant research regarding the adoptive kinship network, openness and contact in adoption, family communication about adopt...

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Openness in Adoption and the Level of Child Participation, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Susan Ayers-Lopez, Harold D. Grotevant, Ruth G. McRoy, and Meredith Friedrick
There is great controversy regarding the impact of openness in adoption, especially the impact of such an arrangement on adopted children. Three indicators of the level of child participation in the openness arrangement were examined: (a) l...

Adopted Adolescents: Who and What Are They Curious About?, Gretchen Miller Wrobel and Kristin Dillon

Minding the (Information) Gap: What Do Emerging Adult Adoptees Want to Know About Their Birth Parents?, Gretchen Miller Wrobel and Harold D. Grotevant
The formation of an adoption information gap was examined for a group of 169 emerging adults (M = 25.0 years) who were adopted as infants. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires at adolescence and emerging adulthood (late teen...

Contact in Adoption: The Experience of Adoptive Families in the USA, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Harold D. Grotevant, Jerica Berge, Tai Mendenhall, and Ruth McRoy
Contact in adoption is a complex issue that adoption professionals frequently negotiate. Today most adoption placements include an initial plan for contact that in many instances changes over time. By understanding contact as an issue that ...

Adolescent Search for Birthparents: Who Moves Forward?, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Harold D. Grotevant, and Ruth G. McRoy
The decision to search for birthparents is one that all adopted persons consider. The focus of this study is to describe, for a group of adopted adolescents, who chooses to search and who does not and to explore how search behavior is relat...

Adoptees' curiosity and information-seeking about birth parents in emerging adulthood: Context, motivation, and behavior, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Harold D. Grotevant, Diana R. Samek, and Lynn Von Korff
The Adoption Curiosity Pathway (ACP) model was used to test the potential mediating effect of curiosity on adoption information-seeking in a sample of 143 emerging adult adoptees (mean age = 25.0 years) who were adopted as infants within th...

Factors related to patterns of information exchange between adoptive parents and children in mediated adoptions, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Julie K. Kohler, Harold D. Grotevant, and Ruth G. McRoy
Communication between adoptive parents and their adopted children was examined in a sample of 60 families involved in mediated adoptive relationships. Subjects for this study participated in the Minnesota-Texas Adoption Project, a nationwid...

The Family Adoption Communication (FAC) Model: Identifying Pathways of Adoption-Related Communication, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Julie K. Kohler, Harold D. Grotevant, and Ruth G. McRoy
Presented is a theoretical model explaining how family communication about adoption evolves over time. Based on data from a national longitudinal study of the effects of openness in adoption (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998), the Family Adoption Co...

Connecting Research to Practice, Gretchen Miller Wrobel and Elsbeth Neil

Books

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Creative Practices for Visual Artists: Time, Space, Process, Kenneth Steinbach
Based on interviews with a culturally, geographically, and aesthetically diverse group of 75 mid-career artists, Creative Practices For Visual Artists is a reassessment of the methods and approaches used by highly successful artists in thei...

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Four Portraits, One Jesus. A Survey of Jesus and the Gospels. Second Edition., Mark L. Strauss
An engaging introduction to Jesus and the gospels, this second edition of Four Portraits, One Jesus has been updated to meet the needs of today's students. With clarity and insight, Mark Strauss guides readers to understand the four distinc...

International Advances in Adoption Research for Practice, Gretchen Miller Wrobel and Elsbeth Neil
This is a unique compilation of cross-cultural and international attitudes towards adoption research and outcomes. Whilst informal adoption of children has probably always existed across all human societies, this work is timely in that inte...

Book Chapters

From "Original Text" to "Initial Text": The Traditional Goal of New Testament Textual Criticism in Contemporary Discussion, Michael W. Holmes
This essay focuses on this second set of issues arising out of the current discussion about the meaning and status of the term “original text.” Following a brief introduction to recent discussion, the essay will sketch usage of the term “or...

Reasoned Eclecticism in New Testament Textual Criticism, Michael W. Holmes
New Testament textual critics work with two categories of evidence, conventionally designated as “external” (provided by the manuscripts themselves, including relative age, geographic distribution, and relative weight of the witnesses) and ...

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Reconstructing the Text of the New Testament, Michael W. Holmes

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The Biblical Canon, Michael W. Holmes
Christianity has, for much of its history, worked with a closed canon of scripture, 'canon' in the sense of a clearly defined and authoritative list of writings considered to be scripture. In such circumstances, every document that is viewe...

Social support, Marjorie A. Schaffer

Social support, Marjorie A. Schaffer
Social support is a middle range theory that addresses structure and interaction in relationships. It impacts health status, health behavior, and use of health services ( Stewart, 1993 ). As health professionals, nurses often have access to...

Edited Books

The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research: Essays on the Status Quaestionis, Bart D. Ehrman and Michael W. Holmes
The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research provides up-to-date discussions of every major aspect of New Testament textual criticism. Written by internationally acknowledged experts, the twenty-four essays evaluate all significan...

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The Routledge Handbook of Adoption, Gretchen Miller Wrobel, Emily Helder, and Elisha Marr
Adoption is practiced globally yielding a multidimensional area of study that cannot be characterized by a single movement or discipline. This handbook provides a central source of contemporary scholarship from a variety of disciplines with...

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International Advances in Adoption Research for Practice, Gretchen Miller Wrobel and Elsbeth Neil
This is a unique compilation of cross-cultural and international attitudes towards adoption research and outcomes. Whilst informal adoption of children has probably always existed across all human societies, this work is timely in that in...

Lectures

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Wayne Roosa Artist Talk - Mattering the Soul, Wayne L. Roosa
After 37 years of teaching at Bethel, Wayne Roosa is retiring and we are celebrating his work with a physical exhibition and virtual art talk. Roosa's exhibition Mattering the Soul celebrates the union of the material and the spiritual, not...