Special Education M.A.

Number of Pages


Year Approved


First Advisor

Silmser, Lisa


Reading struggles have been a constant and pervasive issue for individuals. Reading struggles can be caused by various factors, such as poor reading instruction or, in some cases, a reading disability. Throughout the decades, there have been many schools of thought on the most effective ways to teach reading. In this body of research, the literature provided explores studies that report on effective methods to teach phonological awareness and phonics skills using systematic and explicit methods. In addition, studies comparing explicit and systematic methods of instruction to instructional methods that are not categorized by explicit and systematic methods are explored. Based on the research provided, individuals with reading difficulties, when given explicit and systematic methods of instruction in both phonological awareness and phonics skills, made significant gains in their reading ability. This suggests that providing reading instruction in a systematic and explicit way is the effective way to teach individuals with reading difficulties.

Degree Name

Special Education M.A.

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis