Nurse-Midwifery M.S.

Number of Pages


Year Approved


First Advisor

Hardy, Paige

Second Reader

Julie Ann Vingers


Introduction: Vaginal breech birth has been on the decline since the Term Breech Trial 2000 when adverse neonatal outcomes were found to be higher in vaginal breech births when compared to cesarean sections for breech presentation. However, research has since shown that maternal morbidity and mortality are higher with cesarean sections as opposed to vaginal breech births. Most obstetric providers have lost vaginal breech birth skills and new obstetric providers lack the opportunity for real-time learning of these skills. Whether by choice or by default, vaginal breech births are inevitable and obstetric providers should be prepared with the necessary knowledge, skills and confidence level to assist these births. Research Aim: The goal of this review is to reveal how simulation may benefit providers in terms of knowledge, skills and confidence level surrounding vaginal breech birth. Methods: A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect resulted in 16 original studies and citation searching resulted in 1 original study. Inclusion criteria included years 2013-2023, U.S and International studies, simulation training evaluation for obstetric care providers, and experimental or non-experimental studies. Exclusion criteria were studies not in English, irrelevant to breech skills simulation training, lack of differentiated outcomes specific to breech birth, and lack of post-training data. Study results were organized according to participant outcomes according to Jeffries Simulation Theory. Results: The studies unanimously revealed simulation training to benefit multiple aspects of the provider’s ability to perform safe vaginal breech birth including improved technical skills, increased knowledge, increased confidence level, more likely to counsel for vaginal breech birth and the perception that simulation training was beneficial. Discussion: Vaginal breech birth skills are becoming a “lost art” in the United States field of obstetrics as vaginal breech birth is less frequent. Simulation training for vaginal breech birth is beneficial, cost effective and is promising for providers who want to offer this option or be prepared for the unexpected.

Degree Name

M.S. Nurse-Midwifery

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis