Physician Assistant M.S.

Number of Pages


Year Approved


First Advisor

Haveman, Tammie

Second Reader

Kim Harkins; Donald Hopper


Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest continues to be an event with a high mortality rate. Bystander recognition of cardiac arrest, followed by initiation of CPR and early defibrillation has been shown to be important predictors of survival. Barriers including inadequate training, fear of harming the patient, fear of legal action, and others are prohibitive factors in providing bystander CPR. Minnesota state statute 120B.236 requires CPR education to occur at least one time between grades seven and twelve. Recognizing the importance of quality education for potential bystanders, Bethel University physician assistant students designed a study to understand the details and characteristics of CPR education in Minnesota school districts. A survey was developed to assess various characteristics of CPR curricula. Researchers emailed all 329 Minnesota superintendents background information on the study with a link to the survey and asked for their schools participation in the study. Researchers received an 8.5% response rate to their survey. Based on this data, 88% of school districts are aware of the requirement for CPR education outlined in statute 120B.236, yet 73% of school districts were unaware that the same statute provides free CPR education resources. The response rate was substantially less than anticipated which does limit the generalizability of these results. Further research should be completed to better understand barriers to implementing CPR curricula. Additionally, Minnesota school districts should be educated as to what resources are available to them when trying to implement a CPR curriculum.

Degree Name

Masters of Science in Physician Assistant

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis