Teaching M.A.

Number of Pages


Year Approved


First Advisor

Wickham, Molly

Second Reader

Karin Farrington;


This literature review explores how secondary art teachers can develop 21st century skills of creativity through the creative process. Creativity is not easy to define. Many researchers and individuals define it differently or see creativity as only for artists. Because of this, it is hard to pinpoint what creativity is exactly. Creativity is different things to different people. Several definitions of creativity are explored and how it is seen as a skill in the 21st century. Research is shared on what employers think of creativity, and then an overview of the eight Studio Habits of Mind is covered in this thesis. Three teaching methods are presented to support how 21st century skills can be taught in the classroom: the creative process, project-based learning, and problem-based learning. The end goal of this literature review is to find supporting evidence that secondary art teachers along with the creative process can help students develop the skills they need as they enter the 21st century workforce.

Degree Name

Teaching M.A.

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis