Education K-12 M.A.

Number of Pages


Year Approved


First Advisor

Elliott, Nathan

Second Reader

Lisa Silmser;


Reading is a multifaceted skill, which requires careful and explicit instruction. The majority of students do not acquire the skill of reading naturally. The teaching of reading is important so students do not become struggling readers. Phonemic awareness is a research-based skill to grow early literacy development. The literature review researched if phonemic awareness would assist students in the early stages of learning to read, the involvement phonemic awareness has with assisting struggling readers, and the effects of small group interventions in phonemic awareness. A total of 30 studies were reviewed with focus on phonemic awareness, interventions, early reading development and struggling readers in the primary grades. The research findings highlighted the importance for direct and explicit phonemic awareness in primary grades (Allor, 2002). Assessment results from the studies showed continuous positive effects in skills directly related to phonemic awareness. Findings also suggested struggling readers benefited from small group interventions in phonemic awareness (Elbro & Peterson, 2004). The literature review confirmed educators can make the journey of learning to read a bit easier by teaching phonemic awareness in the primary grades.

Degree Name

Education K-12 M.A.

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis