Education Doctorate

Year Approved


First Advisor

Lindstrom, Mike

Second Reader

Putz, Matt

Third Reader

Rasmussen, Jay


Educators who serve students in online classrooms display a unique set of skills necessary to engage students, however little research and no teacher evaluation tools exist to guide K-12 online teachers in the evidence-based practices needed to perfect their craft. The research that does exist focuses on the post-secondary classroom which is assumed to be significantly different from K-12 environments. Using a Delphi study, an expert group of MN K-12 online educators confirmed that the research from the college level related to teacher immediacy and interaction, the teacher behaviors that most impact student engagement, are applicable to the K-12 online classroom. They also identified twelve distinct teacher behaviors that increase student engagement in the K-12 online setting. Through the synthesis of expert teacher practice and post-secondary research, three unique rubrics were developed; Developing Personal Connections, Facilitating Interaction, and Providing Feedback; to provide a strong supplement to other teacher evaluation programs for the evaluation of K-12 online teachers. These rubrics are intended to provide an entry point for further discussion and research.

Degree Name

Education Doctorate

Document Type

Doctoral dissertation