Special Education M.A.

Year Approved


First Advisor

Larson, Susan


Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared to females at a ratio of 4:1. When isolating for higher intellectual ability, the ratio increases to 10:1. Gender differences exist in restricted, repetitive behaviors and social interaction. Gender differences vary based on age, race, ethnicity, cognitive level, and socio-economic circumstances, assessment procedures, diagnostic tools, evaluator experience, and bias. Diagnostic test elements have been found to be biased toward males. With new knowledge based on the female presentation of ASD symptoms and behaviors, efforts must be made to update evaluation tools, properly train clinicians, and assess using instruments that accurately diagnose females who have been overlooked.

Degree Name

Special Education M.A.

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis