Nurse-Midwifery M.S.

Year Approved


First Advisor

Missal, Bernita


Background/Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the current literature to see if there was a common thread in treatment/prevention of the progression of gestational diabetes in pregnant women. Theoretical Framework: Dorthea Orem’s theory, The Self-Care Deficit Theory, was the theoretical framework used in this critical review of the literature. This theory asserts that patients should be self-reliant and responsible for their healthcare. This is achieved by providers giving them options and advice based on evidence to change their lifestyle and take control. This directly relates to managing GDM, because providers can only counsel the patients on changes, but the patient has to implement the change. Methods: Twenty scholarly research articles were reviewed using current John’s Hopkins Research Evidence Appraisal Tool and then categorized based on an approach to finding a way to reduce the incidence of the progression of GDM A1 to GDM A2. Results/Findings: The most studied methods for treatment of GDM A1 was diet and exercise. A specific diet was not found, but overall a reduction in sweets and carbohydrates with an increase in vegetables, whole grains was encouraged. There was not a specific method of exercise identified, however the common recommendation was moderate exercise for 30 minutes spread out for a total of 150 minutes a week. Implications for Research and Practice: There are numerous areas that need to continue to be researched in order to control the progression and prevent GDM. Larger sample sizes are needed with multiple ethnicities to make the results more generalizable. Another area to be researched is to target gestational weight gain goals that are appropriate for women with GDM. More studies will also improve the effecacy of the integration of these changes to increase compliance and better glycemic control.

Degree Name

M.S. Nurse-Midwifery

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis