Athletic Training M.S.

Year Approved


First Advisor

Osgood , Chad


Background: Scapular dyskinesis is more prevalent in overhead athletes and can also lead to eventual shoulder injuries or shoulder dysfunction. Therefore, a rehabilitation program to manage or treat scapular dyskinesis is important. The effectiveness of feedback modalities used in combination with exercise may be more beneficial in treating and or managing scapular dyskinesis versus just exercise alone. Purpose: In overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, does the use of an exercise program with biofeedback (taping, visual, verbal, surface EMG, video, tactile cueing, and conscious control) reduce the risk of shoulder injury versus exercise alone? Results: Seventeen peer-reviewed articles were examined utilizing the John Hopkins Appraisal Tool and a matrix format. All 17 articles found positive changes in the range of motion, scapular function, and scapular muscle strength or activation when using a feedback mechanism in conjunction with an exercise program. Conclusion: The implementation of feedback mechanisms combined with exercise is a more effective treatment compared to just exercise alone. Feedback tools give way to improved visualization of scapular movement and targeted muscle activity. The type of feedback used depends on the patient’s specific scapular dyskinesis deficiencies and individual needs. Implications for Research and Practice: These findings suggest that feedback is a beneficial addition to a rehabilitation program for overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis. Such a program will aid in preventing further shoulder injuries and maintaining proper shoulder function along with strength. These results were also supported in populations with shoulder impingement syndrome and forward shoulder posture.

Degree Name

Athletic Training M.S.

Document Type

Masterʼs thesis

Included in

Kinesiology Commons